eHealth Equity: Current Perspectives

  • Hamid Moghaddasi Associate Professor in Health information Management and Medical Informatics, Department of Health Information Technology and Management,College of Paramedical Sciences,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
  • Masoud Amanzadeh Ph.D Student in Medical Informatics, Department of Health Information Technology and Managemen,College of Paramedical Sciences,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
  • Forough Rahimi Assistant Professor,College of Paramedical Sciences,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
  • Mahnaz Hamedan Ph.D Student in Health Information Management, Department of Health Information Technology and Managemen,College of Paramedical Sciences,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Keywords: eHealth, health inequality, health equity, health justicee


Health justice is something that every country in the world needs. However, the existence of health disparities among different social groups and geographical regions in various countries of the world is inevitable. These health inequalities are a major obstacle in achieving health justice. There are a number of factors affecting health equity such as socio-economic status, education level, age, religion, geographical position, racial and ethnical differences, gender minorities, environmental factors, accessibility level to healthcare services and resources, and also the quality of healthcare. Although eHealth has the potential of eliminating health inequalities leading to the establishment of health justice, it is essential that governments and health policy makers provide some measures to diminish major barriers facing the society members especially the elderly, poor, uneducated, and disabled people when implementing it. This can result in attaining the advantages of eHealth for establishing health equity.


Morris S, Sutton M, Gravelle H. Inequity and inequality in the use of health care in England: an empirical investigation. Soc Sci Med 2005;60(6):1251-1266.

Whitehead M. The concepts and principles of equity and health. WHO Regional Office for Europe 2000.

Whitehead M, Dahlgren G. Concepts and principles for tackling social inequities in health: Levelling up Part 1. WHO: Studies on social and economic determinants of population health 2006; 2.

Nolen LB, Braveman P, Dachs JN, et al. Strengthening health information systems to address health equity challenges. Bull World Health Organ 2005;83(8):597-603.

Linares-Péreza N, López-Arellano O. Health equity: conceptual models, essential aspects and the perspective of collective health. Soc Med 2008;3(3):194-206.

Brown C, Harrison D, Burns H, Ziglio E. Governance for health equity. WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2013.

Royal New Zealand College of General Practitioners. Achieving health equity by eliminating health inequities position statement 2013.

Kawachi I, Subramanian SV, Almeida-Filho N. A glossary for health inequalities. J Epidemiol Community Health 2002;56(9):647-652.

Wikipedia. Health equity. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Available at: accessed 27May 2017.

Son HH. Equity in Health and Health Care in the Philippines. ADB Economics Working Paper Series 2009;(171).

Braveman P, Gruskin S. Defining equity in health. J Epidemiol Community Health 2003;57(4):254-258.

World Health Organization. Closing the health equity gap: policy options and opportunities for action. WHO 2013.

Braveman PA, Kumanyika S, Fielding J, et al. Health disparities and health equity: the issue is justice. Am J Pub Health 2011; 101(1):149-155.

Lee J. The impact of health information technology on disparity of process of care. Int J Equity Health2015;14(34):1-7.

Hajimahmoudi H, Zahedi F. Justice in the healthcare system: payment and reimbursement policies in Iran. IJME 2013; 6(3):1-6.

GIH Bulletin. Issue Focus, what's in a name: untangling health disparities, the social determinants of health, and health equity 2010. Available at: accessed 27May 2017.

Gostin LO. A framework convention on global health: health for all, justice for all. JAMA 2012; 307(19):2087-2092.

Botero AM, Valencia MM, Carmona-Fonseca J. Social and health equity and equality–the need for a scientific framework. Soc Med 2012;7(1):10-17.

Braveman P. Health disparities and health equity: concepts and measurement. Annu Rev Public Health 2006;27:167-194.

Braveman P, Gruskin S. Poverty, equity, human rights and health. Bull World Health Organ 2003;81(7):539-545.

World Health Organization. Health systems, equity. Available at: accessed 27May2017.

Klein R, Huang D. Defining and measuring disparities, inequities, and inequalities in the Healthy People initiative. National Center for Health Statistics Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010. Available at: accessed 27 May 2017.

Benjamin GC. Health equity and social justice: a health improvement tool. Grant Makers in Health Views from the Field. 2015 May 19.

Brennan Ramirez LK, Baker EA, Metzler M. Promoting health equity: A resource to help communities address social determinants of health. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2008.

Kanter M. Realizing the equity potential of e-health: improving health promotion and self-management in Ontario. The Wellesley Institute 2009. Available at: accessed 27 May2017.

López L, Green AR, Tan-McGrory A, King R, Betancourt JR. Bridging the digital divide in health care: the role of health information technology in addressing racial and ethnic disparities. J Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2011;37(10):437-445.

Custodio R, Gard AM, Graham G. Health information technology: addressing health disparity by improving quality, increasing access, and developing workforce. J Health Care Poor Underserved 2009;20(2):301-307.

Garvin JH, Odom-Wesley B, Rudman WJ, Stewart RS. Healthcare disparities and the role of personal health records. J AHIMA 2009.

The Welleseley Institute. E health and health equity: Comments on Ontario’s eHealth Strategy. The Welleseley Institute, Policy Consultation 2009.

US Department of Health and Human Services. Understanding the impact of health IT in underserved communities and those with health disparities. Briefing Paper. NORC at the University of Chicago. 2010.

Perot R, Davis R. Health information technology: a tool for health equity and system transformation. 2009.

Farach N, Faba G, Julian S, et al. Stories from the field: the use of information and communication technologies to address the health needs of underserved populations in Latin America and the Caribbean. JMIR Pub Health Surveill 2015;1(1).

The California Pan-Ethnic Health Network. Equity in the digital age: how health information technology can reduce disparities. 2013. Available at: accessed 27 May2017.

Kieschnick T, Raymond B. Can health IT promote health equity and patient-centered care? The agency for healthcare research and quality, AMIA, and the Kaiser Permanente Institute for Health Policy 2011. Available at: accessed 27 May2017.

Eysenbach G. What is e-Health? J Med Internet Res 2001;3(2): e20.

Cashen M. S. e-Health technology and internet resources barriers for vulnerable populations. J Cardiovasc Nurs 2004;19(3):209–214.

Wikipedia. E-Health 2016. Available at: accessed 27 May2017.

Solomon C. “Using Technology to Improve Migrant Health Care Delivery” in Institute of Medicine, Health Literacy, e-Health and Communication: Putting the Consumer First: Workshop Summary. The National Academies Press: Washington, D.C. 2009. Available at: accessed 27 May 2017.

Gardner B. Health equity discussion paper. Toronto: Toronto Central LHIN 2008.

Ryan P, Kobb R, Hilsen P. Making the right connection: matching patients to technology. Telemed J e-Health 2003;9(1):81-88.

Undem T. Consumers and health information technology: a national survey. California HealthCare Foundation 2010. Available at: accessed 27 May 2017.

Carroll M, Cullen T, Ferguson S, et al.. Innovation in Indian healthcare: Using health information technology to achieve health equity for American Indian and Alaska Native populations. Perspect Health Inf Manag 2011;8.

Moiduddin A, Stromberg S. Health information technology in California’s rural practices: assessing the benefits and barriers. Prepared for the California Health Care Foundation 2009. Available at: LIBRARY Files/PDF/R/PDF RuralHealthIT.pdf accessed 27 May 2017.

Hostetter M. Case Study: Project ECHO Expands Access to Specialty Care for Rural Patients.2009. Available at: accessed 27 May 2017.

DRA Project. Cell phones and reducing health disparities. Report 06-02 2006.

Belen L. HIMSS Latino and health it in the Latino community: leveraging collaborations, emerging technologies and consumer engagement to eliminate health disparities in the Latino community. HIMSS Latino Community 2012.

Loring B, Friel S, Matheson D, et al. Reducing community health inequity: the potential role for mHealth in Papua New Guinea. J Community Inform 2013;9(2).

Policy Précis Making the link: e-Health and health equity. EuroHealthNet 2013.

Newman LA, Patel K, Barton E. The role and impact of digital and traditional information and communication pathways in health service access and equity. South Australian Community Health Research Unit 2012.

Marschang S. Health inequalities and e-Health. Report of the e-Health Stakeholder Group 2014.

How to Cite
Moghaddasi, H., Amanzadeh, M., Rahimi, F., & Hamedan, M. (2017). eHealth Equity: Current Perspectives. Journal of the International Society for Telemedicine and EHealth, 5, e9 (1-8). Retrieved from